The Holy Mountain
Alejandro Jodorowsky’s 1973 film, The Holy Mountain, is ripe with hidden metaphors. The first twenty minutes of the film alone contain enough interpretable material to comprise a small novel. From the enticing introduction, which is a completely necessary scene, as it sets up the underlying aspect of ritual within the film, to the final words uttered in the film, “Real life awaits us,” the movie almost purposely sets itself up to be disputed.
The above image, seen very early in the film, depicts a group of flayed and crucified animals, an obvious reference to Jesus. My own interpretation of this particular scene would be the obvious analogy that causes one particular species on the planet earth to believe their spiritual background is more sacred than any other species currently occupying this planet. Since this scene is contrasted with several different references to the corporatization of faith, Christianity in particular, I believe this is what it is referencing.
I thought the film was overall pretty brutal, from crucified dogs, to exploding toads, this isn’t the film to watch if you get creeped out pretty easily; I felt pretty uncomfortable through the whole thing. The film has underlying religious meanings to it which would appeal to a certain audience (Christianity).
Overall, I wasn’t much of a fan of this film. I like the concept of using loads and loads of metaphors but some of the scenes made my skin crawl, which to be fair could also be a good thing. Definitely one of those ‘out there’ movies.
Pascale Vergeron is a French artist that combines different techniques and emotions to put together nice compositions. There isn’t much to go off in regards to the artist themselves, as nearly every page about him/her is in French, and the ones that aren’t don’t have any information on them, but from looking at the artwork I could make a solid guess that the artwork is from the 19th century. Dark colours are combined with Figurative subjects for the viewer to fall into the artwork and really take emotion from it. I think Vergeron used things like pastel colours and white paint, however so much detail is put into the work one wouldn’t be able to guess what other techniques have been used. Human figures are used and seem to have been manipulated to the style of work that the artist has comprehended into their work, which I think is brilliant as it’s pretty much throwing the emotions used to your face; dark, scary, depressing and it kind of gives off an anxiety feel.
Why do audiences choose to consume certain texts?
- Something they’re interested in
- Maybe they want downtime
How do they consume texts?
- Social Networking
What Happens when they consume texts?
- Snowball effects
Media Audiences can be defined in terms of location, consumption, size and subjectivity
Location – the domestic consumption of media output raises questions about regulation and control
Consumption – Audiences are defined by what they consume E.g: an audience of a particular genre
Size – There is a need to distinguish between mass audiences and niche audiences
Subjectivity – The impact that membership of pre-existing groups will have on audience members, e.g: gender, nationality, race, religion
Three Audience Theories;
Effects Model or the Hypodermic Model
- The consumption of media texts has an effect or influence upon the audience
- It is normally considered that this effect is negative
- Audiences are passive and powerless to prevent the influence
- The power lies with the message of the text
- Messages in the media are injected by the powerful ‘syringe-like’ media.
- Media works like a drug in this way
Frankfurt School theories in the 1920s and 30s that the mass media acted to restrict and control audiences to the benefit of corporate
The Bobo doll experiment was the collective name of experiments conducted by Albert Bandura in 1961 and 1963 when he studied children’s behavior after watching an adult model act aggressively towards a Bobo Doll, a toy that gets up by itself to a standing position when it is knocked down.Uses and gratifications model
- Effects Model contributes to Moral panics whereby:
- The media produce inactivity, make us into students who wont pass their exams or ‘couch potatoes’ who make no effort to get a job
- The media produces violent ‘copycat’ behaviour or mindless shopping in response to advertisements
Uses and Gratifications Model
- Opposite of effects model
- Audience is active
- Audience uses the text and is not used by it
- Audience uses the text for their own gratification/satisfaction
- Power lies with the audience, not the producers
- Far from being duped by the media
- Theory suggests that audiences act out their violent impulses through the consumption of media violence
- Theory suggested that media producers encoded messages in work, for the audience to decode and understand
- In some instances the audience will understand what the producers are trying to convey through small metaphors
- In some instances the audience will reject or fail to understand what the producer is trying to get across
Stuart Hall identified three types of audience readings:
Where the audience decodes the message as the producer wants them to do and broadly agrees to it
E.g: Watching a political speech and agreeing with it
Where the audience accepts, rejects, or refines elements of the text in light of previously held news
E.g: Neither agreeing or disagreeing with the political view (being uninterested)
Where the underlying meaning is recognised but is further rejected due to cultural, religious or ideological reasons
E.g: Total rejection of the political speech and having direct opposition
The Turner Prize
Roger Dean is an English Artist, Designer and Publisher. He was born in Ashford, England in 1944. He moved around a lot due to his father being in the military. Dean started his career by studying Furniture Design, in which he undertook at London’s Royal College of Art, where he created the famous ‘Sea Urchin Chair’. After he had left, Dean began designing and painting album covers for rock bands, which he would later become so known for. Since, he has been nominated Locus Award for Best Art Book and the Chesley Award for Artistic Achievement, furthermore winning the World Fantasy Award.
Before attending the Roger Dean exhibition and the Manx Museum, I was briefly aware of his work as a Painter, only an inventor and Furniture Designer.
His paintings articulate a very surreal world, which can easily be linked to the famous film ‘Avatar’. Dean uses very contrasting and dramatic colours which are implemented into fine detail in order to appeal to viewers. The shadows used in his work are dramatic which gives an outstanding effect in attracting passers by. The texture in the paintings is fine but coarse, which in my opinion works well with the style of paintings as landscapes are never smooth. The landscapes in the paintings create a nice, curvaceous, organic shape. Movement in the work differs from piece to piece, some swirling into different spaces, some flowing nicely and calming.
Audience Theory in my project
The reception theory can be linked to many music videos, due to the director often leaving hidden metaphors or underlying meanings in the productions – often resulting in the viewer being more interested and emotionally invested in the music video. In some instances, the viewer may reject the underlying meaning to the video, failing to understand what the producer is trying to get across. However, there are other situations in which the producer actually reveals the true meaning of the video, eg. The 1975 – Somebody else. I feel it’s best for me to use the reception theory in my project, as I’d like the audience to have an open mind and be able to interpret different information from my production. I feel teenagers and young adults as students will read as Dominant to my music video, as this is who i’ve aimed my project act. An older audience may choose to be Oppositional to the underlying meaning to my music video, which I feel isn’t a cause for concern, as that’s not who i’m trying to attract.
Architectural Photography can be used for many reasons and is basically limitless however never natural. Some examples of uses for this genre are selling properties, design concepts, commercial shoots, websites, etc. Architectural Photography is consistent with being aesthetically pleasing as many buildings are quite symmetrical due to the man made nature of them. While many buildings are symmetrical and pleasing, some buildings may have patterns to them or just be completely random in shape or location. This is why architectural photography can be a great way to attract a viewers attention for say a real estate agent trying to sell an office building or a house. Furthermore, with todays technology, photoshop is able to easily manipulate an image of a building. This could end up in a viewer not believing the photograph is real, which could cause a fault in architectural photography. Compositionally, architectural photography can be used to easily provide the producer with adequate resources to show emotion or to tell the viewer something. Diagonal lines, horizontal lines and vertical lines could be used to show movement in an image and the size of a building could also come in handy when wanting to show emotion.